Website style

This page documents the style of writing used on the Technical Design Authority (TDA) website and is intended to ensure that the TDA speak with a single voice and tone. It is not intended to be proscriptive in how one must write in general; it is intended to be descriptive of the TDA's voice on this site.


The TDA site should be a useful resource for the majority of UIS members. These members will have different roles within the organisation and so pages should always be written assuming that it will be read by multiple audiences.

Do not use "you" unless the audience has previously been defined. For example, "when you are deploying services..." would not be appropriate in a section aimed at all audiences.

Conversely, make free use of "you" when writing directly to a single audience.


The TDA site should be a useful resource for those involved in the selection and evaluation of third-party products. This can encompass multiple roles and, for the sake of brevity we call this the "procurement audience".

Writing for a procurement audience should set any TDA standards in the context of specific requirements which we expect products to meet.

The procurement audience is not necessarily technical. They do not necessarily need a great deal of justification or rationale for a standard. They do need clear requirements which can be placed into procurement documents. They also benefit from guidance around determining whether a particular vendor response indicates that a requirement is met.

When writing for a procurement audience:

  • Include examples of requirements in a form useful for inserting in tender documents, requests for information (RFIs) or requests for proposals (RFPs).
  • Include examples of responses which meet requirements.
  • Provide contact points for technical experts within University Information Services (UIS) who can assist with the drafting and evaluation of vendor responses.
  • Make it clear if a requirement will also impose on-going or up-front work for UIS. For example, if a requirement implies an integration with an existing system, indicate whether UIS would be expected to perform that integration and to maintain it.


The TDA site should be a useful resource for those involved in the technical delivery of a service. This can encompass multiple roles and, for the sake of brevity we call this the "engineering audience".

Writing for an engineering audience should set any TDA standards alongside information on how they may be implemented and why they are as they are.

The engineering audience is, by virtue of their role, technical in nature. As people used to making minute-to-minute technical decisions when implementing services, they prefer to be well informed and for standards to have clear rationale and justification behind them.

When writing for an engineering audience:

  • Include a rationale and justification for standards. Do not "appeal to authority" when writing these as it can appear as "cargo culting". Instead, provide a reasoned discussion of the standard along with examples of how it helps UIS as a whole.
  • Provide links to material providing overviews of related technology, "getting started" guides and, if possible, examples of the standard being implemented elsewhere in UIS.
  • Reduce the barrier to experimentation as much as possible. A technology which requires elaborate approval or on-boarding processes to evaluate will be adopted less than a technology which can be experimented with in a few minutes.
  • Be precise in your language. Avoid "weasel wording" in order to smooth any internal divides. The engineering audience spends their working lives looking for ambiguity or inconsistency and will keenly spot it in writing.


The TDA site should be a useful resource for those co-ordinating the delivery of a service. This can encompass multiple roles spanning project, line and sprint management. For the sake of brevity we call this the "co-ordinator audience".

Writing for a co-ordinator audience should set any TDA standards in the context of their relative priority. The co-ordinator audience may be juggling multiple streams of work and they will need to determine when work is required to bring a service in line with TDA standards and which standards are the most important to implement.

When writing for a co-ordinator audience:

  • Make it clear whose responsibility it is to implement and police a standard. In particular indicate if it involves on-going engineering work.
  • Be explicit when a standard is dependent on another standard. For example, an authentication standard which mandates OAuth2 implicitly requires that the service be delivered in part over the web.
  • Allow a non-technical reader to understand what a particular standard aims to do and how one may determine if that aim is met.
  • Indicate at what point in a service's life-cycle the TDA should be approached.


The TDA site is a public website. Development is done in the open in a public Developers' Hub project. As such it may be read by those external to UIS. An external audience may have been directed to the TDA site as an example of practice to be followed or avoided. The TDA should strive to make sure that the former is more common than the latter.


Pages providing guidance or standards should stand alone when read from beginning to end. They should have an introduction which sets out what the page will contain. They may have an abstract to allow the main points to be emphasised.

Consider each page in the context of the TDA audiences above. If appropriate include a section on each page indicating who the page is written for. Larger pages will probably benefit from a section directing particular audiences to sections of most relevance to them.

When appropriate, provide a collection of external resources at the bottom of a page for those who wish to dive deeper into the topic.


The TDA is intended, as part of its terms of reference, to provide guidance to the UIS. This site should be written as guidance firstly and instruction secondarily.

The tone of this site should be that of a colleague mentoring another. In particular it should not suggest that TDA guidance is in some way self-evident. Nor should it pre-suppose that the audience has complete understanding of the topic covered.

Prefer to be whimsical rather than po-faced, to be educational rather than merely informative and to be conversational rather than authoritarian.


Much of the TDA site will be concerned with setting technical standards and providing advice. It is important that it is clear when the site contains direction (i.e. what people must do) and when it contains guidance (i.e. what people should do).

An engineering audience may already by familiar with the content of RFC 2119 and so it makes sense to adopt its definitions of the following terms, reproduced here verbatim:

  • "must": This word, or the terms "required" or "shall", mean that the definition is an absolute requirement of the specification.
  • "must not": This phrase, or the phrase "shall not", mean that the definition is an absolute prohibition of the specification.
  • "should": This word, or the adjective "recommended", mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances to ignore a particular item, but the full implications must be understood and carefully weighed before choosing a different course.
  • "should not": This phrase, or the phrase "not recommended" mean that there may exist valid reasons in particular circumstances when the particular behaviour is acceptable or even useful, but the full implications should be understood and the case carefully weighed before implementing any behaviour described with this label.
  • "may": This word, or the adjective "optional", mean that an item is truly optional. One vendor may choose to include the item because a particular marketplace requires it or because the vendor feels that it enhances the product while another vendor may omit the same item. An implementation which does not include a particular option must be prepared to interoperate with another implementation which does include the option, though perhaps with reduced functionality. In the same vein an implementation which does include a particular option must be prepared to interoperate with another implementation which does not include the option (except, of course, for the feature the option provides.)

To cater for an external audience, try to provide a summary definition of University of Cambridge-specific terminology when it is introduced. Along with helping an external reader, this also helps orientate new hires when they read this site.

When first introducing a technical term, try to link it to a page elsewhere on the web providing an overview of the term. Wikipedia is a good source of a consensus view of technical terminology. Remember that someone reading the site may be a member of that day's lucky 10,000.


The TDA site should always be written in the active voice where possible. It should be written from the perspective of the independent observer and not, for example, as if it were the TDA speaking directly. It should assume a general audience unless in a section explicitly directed at a single audience. Some examples of ways of saying "the TDA recommends the use of Cloud services where possible" which do not match this style:

  • "Cloud services, where possible, are recommended by the TDA" - use of passive voice.
  • "We recommend the use of Cloud Services where possible" - writing as the TDA, not about it.
  • "Cloud services must be used" - unclear about whether this is the TDA or some or external requirement imposing the restriction and does not specify who should be using Cloud Services or when.
  • "The TDA recommends that Cloud Services be used when you implement your service" - begging the question of whether the audience is implementing a service.


When a technical term is first introduced on a page, format it in italics. If appropriate, make it a hyperlink pointing to a resource where a reader can find out mode.

When an initialism or acronym is present on a page, spell it out explicitly on first use and place the initialism or acronym in brackets after.

Hyperlinks should be nouns or phrases, not verbs. Click here is considered harmful.

If text quotes some UI element such as a button's label or dialogue box's title, format it in bold.


The word "service" should if at all possible only be used to refer to UIS-provided services. If third-party services are being discussed, prefer words such as "products", "offerings" or "tools" when describing them. This will avoid confusion between whether UIS or a third-party is responsible for the design and delivery of a "service".

Contact details

When providing email contact details prefer role addresses to personal addresses. Ideally pages on this site should remain correct as people move around within UIS. Where personal addresses must be used always include the person's role so that an appropriate contact can be found if the person moves on.

External resources

A style guide can never be exhaustive and will almost always be controversial. Examples of other guides which can be used to answer questions of style include: